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Church Architecture in America

hecma925

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I knew that sounded familiar.

This guy made another video visiting a parish in Salt Lake City:

And another channel visiting a parish in Chicago:
 
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It seems like in America, we have difficulty replicating good Orthodox architecture. However, sometimes I see churches here in America which do a wonderful job of portraying the faith through architecture. What's especially impressive to me is when I see a church build a beautiful temple without an astronomical budget. I've seen meager buildings constructed out of sheet metal that are traditional and beautiful, and I've seen expensive showy buildings that are a poor representation. I have been wanting to start a thread to share Orthodox buildings in America that we think are faithful to our tradition and are beautiful to look at - Any style and any time frame.

Also feel free to discuss your opinions about orthodox architecture in America in general. I think about these things a lot, but don't have many people who like talking about it.

Here's one that I found just yesterday on the internet. This is St. Sava's church in Allen, TX in the OCA. It's a beautiful Byzantine style church, made in a stick frame construction with stucco exterior.
If I were to nitpick it, I would say that it is proportionally a little short. At least in comparison to the historic churches in this style which could tower to 3 stories high with a floorplan of this size. The biggest effect this height will have would be the acoustics. It will be lacking much of the reverb a taller church would have. HOWEVER, is that height necessary? Absolutely not. I understand saving the extra money on a dimension which cannot be used by the congregation, and I think it's a reasonable compromise to make in a parish church.

I'd like to know what kind of roof material they used, looks like some kind of a standing seam. I also really like the band of natural stone around the exterior.
One not-always-realized point of Orthodox architecture has to do with language and singing.

Part of why Russian churches have onion domes is because the sounds and tones which Slavonic makes when sung, best resonate with onion domes. Part of why Greek churches don't have domes that are as onion-y is because they best resonate with domes and arches that aren't so onion-y in comparison with Slavic churches. Same reason why Georgian churches have a pointed dome; it is how the language, when sung, best resonates.
Ever sing Slavonic in a traditional Greek style church? It will still sound good, but just a little off when compared if it's sung in a onion domed church. Same thing with singing Greek in a Russian onion domed church; it may still sound good, but just a little off.

I was told this by an engineer who used to be a radio operator. With English, chances are having a Gothic style church may best resonate English singing.
 

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^I have never heard this theory.
 
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^I have never heard this theory.
Try it out sometime!

Like, find a church with onion domes and sing a hymn in Slavonic, Greek, English, and whatever other language you may know. Then do the same in a traditional Greek church followed by a Gothic style one.
 

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In many churches with onion domes, those domes are decorative to the exterior and have nothing to do with acoustics.
 

Dominika

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^I have never heard this theory.
Me neither.


Try it out sometime!

Like, find a church with onion domes and sing a hymn in Slavonic, Greek, English, and whatever other language you may know. Then do the same in a traditional Greek church followed by a Gothic style one.
But even in Russia itself you have at least a few types of chants. Plus onios may look differetnly - we have them in Poland, but respecteviely to the region and epoch of construction of the church, they differ.
Also Bulgarians and Serbs are Slavs, and do not have onions.
In my humble opinion it is more about various influences and climate. That's why e.g churches both Orthodox and Catholic have specific architecuture in southern POland that's mountanious (and even there it differs depedning on type of mountains) than in plain terrains. Plus also it depends on the available material like type of wood, stone, etc.
 

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Looking at some of the pictures posted, I wonder if some of the churches budgeted for iconography. some of the architecture is beautiful, but so many white walls with no icons.

I'd still prefer to see many small churches that can hold maybe 100 to 150 people built in cities and towns, than one or two huge cathedrals that can accommodate five hundred plus people (but rarely do except for Pascha and Christmas) located in downtown areas.
 

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Looking at some of the pictures posted, I wonder if some of the churches budgeted for iconography. some of the architecture is beautiful, but so many white walls with no icons.
Usually that's a separate budget. Better to have white walls for a while and have good iconography, rather than immediately putting up mounted prints that stay forever.
 

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Just give them a billion dollars, deduct it from your taxes, and they will finish it.:censored:
They would find away to lose the billion dollars. They are using an Italian architect and cost over runs by importing materials from the Mediterranean.
 

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I think most parishes have to deal with what works, even sacrificing beauty at times.
If it’s not beautiful it doesn’t work. There is no excuse for building anything for use in worship if it’s ugly. Architecture is so expensive it’s a waste to cut corners and make an eyesore. Better to buy a readymade temple and adapt it to our use than build a new Quonset hut and pretend it’s adequate.
 

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I agree, Andrew Gould is great. I think he manages to incorporate local architectural elements in a tasteful way, which is sometimes easier said than done.

I think you forgot to include the link, Hecma.
Andrew Gould's Church Architecture
Wow, it sounds like you and Hecma might know him personally. That's cool!
 

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I really like the pre-WWI Russian Orthodox and Metropolia churches because of how authentic and indigenous they feel for the American landscape.

Are there some Greek or Antiochian pre-WWI buildings that come to mind that were built in a traditional EO style?
 

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One I've mentioned before and still really like, St. Innocent in Macon Georgia...

View attachment 20266

View attachment 20267
This may be one of the only Georgian style church in America. There are many Armenian churches that resemble this style which is near the same but represents Armenian Apostolic Christianity and not Eastern Orthodox. For once an American church got the verticals dimension about rIght. A pity about the Serbian church above, because it’s gorgeous otherwise.
 

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I really like the pre-WWI Russian Orthodox and Metropolia churches because of how authentic and indigenous they feel for the American landscape.

Are there some Greek or Antiochian pre-WWI buildings that come to mind that were built in a traditional EO style?
Greek churches of that vintage often mimic pagan temples.
 

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Here's a most beautiful church: Ss Peter and Paul Antiochian Orthodox Church in Potomac, MD, built in a neo-byzantine style. This church definitely has some money flowing in, thanks be to God. Worth especial attention is the unusual background to all of the frescoes. It reminds me of a beautiful sunrise or sunset. Very unusual, but I have to say that I it's done tastefully and not out of order with tradition. Another remarkable feature is the beautiful marble iconostasis and dome over the altar.









Here is a wonderful 360° tour of the church. Orthodox 360
Wow really impressive but it would be so much cooler with no pews and a marble floor. That would sound fantastic too.
 

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St. John the Baptist Greek Monastery (Goldendale, WA)

Screen Shot 2021-10-17 at 2.56.29 PM.png
Screen Shot 2021-10-17 at 2.56.13 PM.png
 

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Last two aren't American :)
 

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New Smyrna colony, 18th century northeast Florida
This place is sometimes labeled the first Orthodox parish in the US, but I am pretty skeptical. The proprietor (Turnbull) had a Greek wife in communion with the Vatican, and the colonists were taken from a Greek Catholic island, ie. the island was settled by Greek Catholics. (Minorcans/Menorcans). The Minorcan islands are part of Catholic Spain. Plus the priest there in the New Smyrna colony must have been Catholic:
The story of the Menorcan struggle is found in the recorded Catholic Church documents of the spiritual leader of the Menorcans, Father Pedro Camps. His records, known as The Golden Book of the Menorcans is the basis for much of what is known about the early Menorcan history in Florida.

The Menorcans Settled on Charlotte Street in St. Augustine
Drawing from the 1892 Standard Guide to St. Augustine


Holy Trinity Cathedral, New Orleans Greek parish

"Oldest Greek Church in America built 1867; New Orleans, Louisiana"



1911 baptism of 2 children


Pascha 1991-1916



The New Orleans parish itself was a really interesting community. Before they had actually organized themselves as a parish, they raised their own Orthodox militia regiment to fight on the Confederate side of the Civil War. Later on, from 1881 to 1901, the community had a priest from Bulgaria. Until 1906, most of the church records were kept in English. It was only later that Greek became the dominant language.

I was in the Southeast on Sunday for liturgy and someone from the southeast mentioned to me that there was a Confederate "Orthodox" regiment. I told them that there was a Russian cossack group that burned or looted a city in Alabama. The latter was under Brigadier General Ivan Turchinov.

Nadine Turchin Fights Alongside her Husband in the Civil War

Her father was a colonel in the Russian Army and her uncle, Prince Alexei. Lvov, was a noted composer. Although she was brought up in army camps, she received an excellent education. Besides being the pet of her father’s regiment, she read extensively and became proficient in four languages.
...
John Turchin Becomes McClellan's Assistant at the Illinois Central Railroad

The Illinois Central Railroad hired John Turchin as an assistant to George McClellan, chief engineer and vice president of the Railroad. John Turchin had met George McClellan in Russia during the Crimean War when McClellan served there as a military observer for the United States.

Nadine Turchin Takes Command of Her Husband’s Regiment

During the march into Tennessee in the spring of 1862, Colonel Turchin was taken seriously ill, and for some days was carried in an ambulance on the route. Nadine Turchin nursed her husband during his illness, and also filled his place as commander of the regiment.

San Francisco Russian Cathedral
The San Francisco cathedral is beautiful:

"The Russian cathedral in San Francisco, after renovations following an 1889 fire. "
The other really old parish, the San Francisco cathedral, was founded in 1868 under Russian authority. Just like New Orleans, San Francisco had a multi-ethnic Orthodox community. That community largely consisted of Greeks and Serbs, and in 1867, they formally requested that the Russian bishop in Alaska send them a priest. Soon after this, the Russian bishop moved his own residence down to San Francisco.

...the New Orleans and San Francisco parishes were the only churches in the United States in 1890. They were outposts, really; there wasn’t much in the way of established Orthodoxy in America, outside of the Russians and Orthodox natives in Alaska. But after 1890, things began to change really rapidly. On the one hand, as I said before, thousands of Orthodox immigrants were arriving in the United States. And at the same time, entire parishes of Eastern Rite Catholics were converting, en masse, to Orthodoxy.

The article above sounded wrong to me when it said that New Orleans and San Francisco had the only parishes in the US... but then I remembered that Alaska only became a state in the mid 20th century.

St. Mary's Cathedral/Cathedral of the Protection of the Holy Virgin, Minneapolis, first built 1887.
The parish community has been at its present location since 1887 when faithful immigrants primarily from Slovakia, Carpatho-Rus, and Ukraine built their first church of wood. The present congregation includes third and fourth generation descendants of the original founders, along with men and women from across the greater Twin Cities region from all nationalities and backgrounds. Through the years, many of today's parishioners have converted to Orthodox Christianity, reflecting the diversity of Orthodoxy and residents of Minnesota.

In 1904, the structure burned to the ground, and members decided to build the larger steel and stone structure in continuous use to the present day.

Original St. Mary's Cathedral building


St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, today. This building was built in 1905. It looks amazing for such an old building.

1877
"The first known Rusyn, or Carpatho-Ruthenian, immigrant to Minneapolis, George Homzik, arrives in the city."


St. Nicholas Russian Church, Eklutna, Alaska


The Knik chapel was completed in 1889. Orthodox priest Ioann Bortnovsky, who served Upper Cook Inlet from 1897-1907, wrote in his journals that numerous Dena’ina families moved from Knik to Eklutna in 1897 to escape unscrupulous white traders. The Knik chapel was evidently disassembled for relocation as well, but Bortnovsky persuaded the Dena’ina immigrating to Eklutna to build a new chapel instead. The chapel was finished by December 20, 1897, and the fixtures from the Knik chapel were installed in the new building.
https://m.newsminer.com/features/su...cle_216082e6-a80f-11e8-a112-cf0379f5d84d.html

Chicago, 1890's - first time there were two parishes in one city answering to different jurisdictions:

Eventually, the Church of Greece sent a priest named Fr. Panagiotis Phiambolis, and in 1892 Phiambolis established the first Orthodox parish of any kind in Chicago. But this was not a multi-ethnic parish, like San Francisco and New Orleans. This parish was specifically for Greek people. The Chicago Tribune reported that the new Greek church “wants no one but those of Hellenic blood among its members” Almost exactly one month after the Greek church began in Chicago, the Russians established their own church. By now, I should note, Bishop Vladimir had been recalled to Russia, and was replaced by Bishop Nicholas.

So now in 1892, there were two Orthodox parishes in the city of Chicago – one Greek, one Russian. This was the first time in our history that two Orthodox churches, answering to different ecclesiastical authorities, coexisted in the same US city.
SOURCE: orthodoxhistory.org/2010/07/12/the-historical-reality-of-greek-orthodoxy-in-america/
 

rakovsky

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St. Nicholas/St. Helena? rededicated by the OCA as Holy Trinity Chapel, Fort Ross Chapel, Fort Ross, California
Fort Ross was active as a Russian fort in 1812 to 1841.

Maybe the curtain is covering some special ikons?



Photo of Holy Trinity Chapel, taken 1953:


In more recent photos online, for some reason there is no paint on the roof or domes and it just looks like plain wood. I don't know why they aren't painting it now. Maybe they think that no paint is more authentic. But white and green also look to me like colonial period Russian building colors.

The main chapel restoration took place between 1915 and 1917, though mistakes that were made were corrected between 1955 and 1957. Holy Trinity Chapel was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1969, due to it being "architecturally significant as a rare U.S. example of a log church constructed on a Russian quadrilateral plan". Unfortunately on October 5, 1970, an accidental fire burned the church to the ground, causing the chapel itself to be de-listed in 1971. A complete reconstruction was built in 1973. However, the whole Fort Ross settlement retains its National Historic Landmark status.

First Orthodox Church in New York consecrated, 1870

" In November 1870, the first Orthodox church in New York City was consecrated."

" From 1870 to 1883, Fr. Nicholas Bjerring operated a Russian chapel in New York City. At the time, there were very few Orthodox Christians in New York, and Bjerring’s parish was always small. As we’ve discussed before, in 1883, the Russian government decided to pull its funding and close the chapel. Bjerring responded by leaving the Orthodox Church and becoming a Presbyterian minister. "

Father Nicholas Bjerring, who founded the city’s first parish in 1870, was in fact a convert to Russian Orthodoxy. Bjerring, who was born in Denmark, taught philosophy at a Roman Catholic seminary in Baltimore before he came to New York. He was first exposed to Orthodoxy by reading a scholarly journal called L’Union Chrétienne, edited by a French Jesuit convert. The catalyst for his conversion was the 1870 Roman Catholic council popularly called “Vatican I,” which officially dogmatized Papal infallibility. In response to the council, Bjerring wrote to Pope Pius IX in 1870, accusing the Roman Catholic Church of lacking true catholicity—in contrast, he said, to the Orthodox Church. ...

In November of 1870, Bishop Paul of Alaska consecrated the parlor of Bjerring’s home at Second Avenue and 50th Street (now the site of a gastropub) for use as a chapel. This “house church” was named the Chapel of the Holy Trinity and remained active for about 15 years.
... All the services held there were initially in English. An English translation of the Divine Liturgy had been approved by the Holy Synod and published in 1865. The translation was completed anonymously by Fr. Stephen G. Hatherly, himself also a convert and an Orthodox priest in England under the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

... When funding was withdrawn in 1885, Bjerring was asked to close the church and move to Saint Petersburg to teach in its academy. This apparently was so jarring to him that he later apostatized, first to Presbyterianism (where he took up social activism, at that time called by Protestants the “Social Gospel”), and later back to Roman Catholicism when the Presbyterian Church reneged on funding his activist efforts. He died a Roman Catholic layman in 1900.

[/URL]
Between 1868-1892, similar multi-ethnic and multi-lingual parishes were founded by diplomatic personnel, foreign businessmen, and small numbers of Orthodox immigrants in San Francisco (1868), New York (1870-1883), Chicago (1888), Portland, Oregon (1890), Galveston (ca 1890), and Seattle (1892). Following the provisions of the Council of Carthage (AD 419), wherein responsibility for Orthodox communities in a new land is given to that Orthodox Church which initiates missionary work in it, these small communities, numbering altogether some 600 faithful, received priests, financial assistance, and/or liturgical items from the missionary diocese in San Francisco.


Honorable Mention: First Rusyn/Ukrainian Catholic Church in the US, built 1884 in Shenandoah, PA.

This is a guidepost for the Orthodox history in the continental US, since many of the EOs in the US like Fr. Alexis Toth were converts from Eastern Catholicism and belonged to the Rusyn/Ukrainian immigration wave.

St. Nicholas Russian Cathedral, 1901
"On May 22, 1901, Bishop Tikhon of the Aleutians and North America laid the cornerstone of the temple.
The design, by John Bergesen, was of a church that followed that of typical Russian churches. The structure was of stone with a dark red brick facade trimmed with limestone and glazed tile in green, blue, and yellow surmounted by seven onion shaped domes. The curving ribs of the domes were of gilt bronze that contrasted with the green painted galvanized iron surface."


In 1895, the Holy Synod began taking seriously the increasing number of Russian immigrants settling in the city. The Synod established a church in rented rooms at Second Avenue and 78th Street, naming it the Russian Greek Orthodox Church of Saint Nicholas. ... Fr. Alexander [Hotovitsky] also supported efforts to plant new parishes throughout the region. With his help, Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Church was founded in Yonkers in 1898 and St. Basil’s Russian Orthodox Church in Watervliet in 1901.

[/URL]
"In 1905, the center of the [Russian] Church [in the US] was transferred to New York (St. Nicholas Cathedral, the new Episcopal Cathedra, had been dedicated in 1902), and the newly-elevated Archbishop Tikhon was now given two Auxiliary Bishops to administer a greatly-expanded Church in America. Bishop Raphael (Hawaweeny) of Brooklyn (the first Orthodox Bishop consecrated in America March 12, 1904) was primarily responsible for the Syro-Arab communities and the other Auxiliary, Bishop Innocent (Pustynsky) was appointed Bishop of Alaska."
SOURCE: NY/NJ OCA Diocese website

Holy Trinity, First Greek parish in NY State, 1904 Episcopal (Protestant) building used, 1931 new Greek Church built
" In 1904 a permanent church building, an Episcopal church of Gothic architecture at 153 East 72nd Street, was purchased. The first service was held on April 3, 1904. Later that same year, the dynamic Father Methodeos Kourkoules assumed the pastorate and remained its benevolent and resolute spiritual leader until 1940. ... On the night of January 18, 1927, the Holy Trinity Church on East 72nd Street burned to the ground. Services were moved to St. Eleftherios Church on East 24th Street. In October 1929, with the collapse of the stock market, foreclosed land and buildings were available at ridiculously low prices. Land was purchased at the present location, and a new church was built. Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of then Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt, laid the cornerstone of the beautiful Byzantine edifice on September 14, 1931."
 

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Any preschism churches in Greenland and NW Iceland would count as history Orthodox Architecture in North America.


There are ruins of a stone church in Greenland that dates at least from the 14th century:

The oldest church ruins I found for Iceland are from the 17th century.

Thjodhilde’s church, c. 1000 AD
IQALUIT — A Greenland-based group wants to preserve and protect the first Christian church in North America.

Built in 1000 AD, the modest sod and log structure is located near Qassiarsuk, Greenland. It’s known as Thjodhilde’s church after Tjodhilde, the wife of Greenland’s Viking pioneer, Erik the Red.

“This little church was the first church on the North American continent,” said Jonathan Motzfeldt, the premier of Greenland, during a millennium celebration held at the church last July.
Source: Nunatsiaq News



Via Viking trade routes and settlements, even New England (See eg. the Viking Penny in Maine) was connected indirectly with the Eastern Mediterranean.
 

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Thingvalla Kirkja Church
"Thingvalla Kirkja is one of the oldest churches in Iceland! It was consecrated in the 11th century. For being so old, it is still quite pretty and we love the white building rimmed with green detail."

The current building is from 1859:

 

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One not-always-realized point of Orthodox architecture has to do with language and singing.

Part of why Russian churches have onion domes is because the sounds and tones which Slavonic makes when sung, best resonate with onion domes. Part of why Greek churches don't have domes that are as onion-y is because they best resonate with domes and arches that aren't so onion-y in comparison with Slavic churches. Same reason why Georgian churches have a pointed dome; it is how the language, when sung, best resonates.
Ever sing Slavonic in a traditional Greek style church? It will still sound good, but just a little off when compared if it's sung in a onion domed church. Same thing with singing Greek in a Russian onion domed church; it may still sound good, but just a little off.

I was told this by an engineer who used to be a radio operator. With English, chances are having a Gothic style church may best resonate English singing.
The acoustics play into it (and sometimes the singing is modified to better meet the acoustical climate) - but other areas of physics do, too. Agia Sophia's dome wouldn't survive one Syracuse NY snowfall without buttresses 4x the size of the current ones.
 

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Not a fan of the "onion domes". My priest said domes represent God bending Heaven to be with us (contrasting that with western churches that point up to Heaven).

On a different style is Frank Lloyd Wright's design of Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church in Milwaukie, WI
https://historicmilwaukee.org/doors-open/buildings/annunciation-greek-orthodox-church/
I think that it looks really cool, but it doesn't fit well with an Orthodox Church, which should be made in an actual Orthodox style, IMO.

On the outside it reminds me of a UFO.

On the inside, it has the Masonic-type layout of the attendants sitting around the ritual area instead of facing the altar straight on.
 

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"St. Michael's Cathedral in Sitka, Alaska, is the oldest Orthodox cathedral in the United States. The structure was built in the 1840s while Alaska was still under Russian rule; the U.S. later bought Alaska from the Russians in 1867 for $7.2 million. The cathedral was made of wood and capped with a traditional Russian onion dome, and was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1961. The church was destroyed by fire just five years later, but thanks to a drawing created by the Historic American Buildings Survey, architects were able to recreate the original structure using fireproof materials."


St. Theodosius Cathedral, Cleveland, OH, 1911-1912

New Orleans Greek community



" Photo of Benachi House, once owned by Chios-born Nicholas Benachi, a New Orleans merchant and co-founder of the Greek Orthodox Church."
Source: Greekreporter.com


Cool 1930's based map of New Orleans

1866 Greek Church, Holy trinity Church, New Orleans


"At what was then 230 North Dolhonde St., the Eastern Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity erected its first permanent structure in 1866, arguably the first building in the city whose design may be aptly described as truly Greek rather the Greek "Revival." Photo courtesy of Richard Campanella"
Source:Nola.com


Greek Church on Dorenois Street, New Orleans.

This looks significantly different than the Church in the earlier photo. I guess it got renovated...

Second Holy trinity Building, New Orleans, 1951


" At 1222 North Dorgenois St., the second Holy Trinity Church, built in 1951, featured a more Mediterranean style, with a domed tower, mosaics and Greek crosses. In the 1980s, the congregation moved into its red-brick Hellenic Cultural Center (built in 1980) and the new cathedral (built in 1985), overlooking the scenic banks of Bayou St. John at Robert E. Lee Boulevard. The old North Dorgenois building became home to St. Luke's Episcopal Church. ... To many New Orleanians in the 1970s, "Greek culture" brought to mind not Holy Trinity, nor the Greek Fest (which started in 1974), but rather a very different cultural space along 100 to 200 blocks of Decatur Street in the upper French Quarter. There operated a solid line of bars and clubs catering to Greek sailors calling at the Port of New Orleans. "
SOURCE:nola.com


Holy Trinity Greek Church, current building, New Orleans




Holy Trinity Greek Church, Baton Rouge.

I have trouble finding history on this parish, despite it being in the capitol of Louisiana, a state with a long Greek heritage.
 

Stinky

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On the Feast of the Protection of the Theotokos (October 14, 1914 - according to the Julian Calendar), work began on the new foundation. The year prior, plans were taken from St. Joseph Orthodox Church in Muddy, Illinois. Fr. Michael Vyacheslavov left St. Louis, Missouri to become the first priest.

As work rapidly progressed, disaster struck on October 27, 1914. An earth-shattering explosion took place in the Franklin County Coal Company located in Royalton. Thirteen Orthodox Christian men died. In the aftermath of the disaster, it was learned that one of the founders of the parish,Frank Derbak, had survived.
 
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FULK NERA

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I think that it looks really cool, but it doesn't fit well with an Orthodox Church, which should be made in an actual Orthodox style, IMO.

On the outside it reminds me of a UFO.

On the inside, it has the Masonic-type layout of the attendants sitting around the ritual area instead of facing the altar straight on.
Hiring Frank Lloyd Wright to design an Orthodox Church was a huge vain error. He showcased his quirky theosophical esoteric design at the expense of Orthodox worship requirements and good taste. The community who hired him has the blame.
 

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I think that it looks really cool, but it doesn't fit well with an Orthodox Church, which should be made in an actual Orthodox style, IMO.

On the outside it reminds me of a UFO.

On the inside, it has the Masonic-type layout of the attendants sitting around the ritual area instead of facing the altar straight on.
Wright designed the Marin Co. Civiv Center which is very cool and appropriate. Too bad about Annunciation though. The bishop whom blessed this was thinking worldly thoughts about how it redound to his honor, or something. I would not try to do Orthodox worship in such a building so unamenable to it. The Rudolph Steiner Christian Community would have a happier home in such a space.
 
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