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Deuterocanonical books listed by chronological theme

rakovsky

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Apostolic Canon 85 that Trullo Canon 2 accepts - alone among the sources in Canon 2 - affirms not only 2-3 Macc, putting them in the Deuterocanon, but seemingly also 1 to 2 Clement , which the Church seems to unanimously currently consider noncanonical.

Apostolic Canon 85 says,
Our own books, that is, those of the New Testament, are: the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; fourteen Epistles of Paul; two Epistles of Peter; three of John; one of James, and one of Jude. Two Epistles of Clemens, and the Constitutions of me Clemens, addressed to you Bishops, in eight books, which are not to be published to all on account of the mystical things in them. And the Acts of us the Apostles.
This sounds a little confusing because it seems to list them with the NT Canon, but the translator puts a period before the mention of Clement and the Constitutions, which seems reasonable because the prior sentence ends with "and one of Jude.", as if Jude is the end of the list of the NT Canon.

Also, Trullo Canon 2 specifies that the above mentioned Apostolic Constitutions are not in the NT Canon.
 

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In her Tales From Exile series on Judith 5.1-5.3, Kristin the presenter theorizes that Judith's story is a parable, rather than a factual historical narrative.

I find her theory persuasive. Judith as a name is the female form of Judah, and Bethulyah/Bethulia, her city, means virginity. WIkipedia's article on Bethulia notes:
Greek: Βαιτυλούᾳ, Baituloua; Hebrew: בתוליה)
...
The name "Bethuliah" in Hebrew can be associated, in an allegorical sense, with "Beth-el" (house of God).[2] If treated as a real geographical name, it can be explained as a composite word built from "betulah", virgin, and "Jah", the proper name of God, so literally "Yhwh's virgin".
The story declares that the Nebuchadnezzar of the account is the king of Assyria, and that the Jews have returned from Exile and rebuilt their Temple, and then reconsecrated it. In real history, Nebuchadnezzar was the king of Babylon in the 6th century BC, and the Jews returned from exile and rebuilt their Temple after the Persians defeated the Babylonian Empire. A "reconsecration" of their Temple occurred in the time of the Maccabees in the 2nd century BC.

Kristin notes that a Jewish writer in the 6th-1st centuries BC would certainly have known that these details were not historically correct, and she reasonably concludes that therefore the author was intending to write a fictional parable. She compared it to a story in which "Lady Liberty" would be depicted by the feminine "We can do it! poster" and would have defended the United States in WWII.
 

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In "Catholic Introduction to the Old Testament: Judith", Fr. Larry Young makes three interesting points. One is that Judith stayed 3 days at the Assyrian invaders' camp when she went there to deceive and kill their leader, Holofernes. Judith 12 has:
7. So Holofernes ordered his guards not to hinder her. Thus she stayed in the camp three days. Each night she went out to the valley of Bethulia, where she bathed herself* at the spring of the camp.c
8. After bathing, she prayed to the Lord, the God of Israel, to direct her way for the triumph of her people.
9. Then she returned purified to the tent and remained there until her food was brought to her toward evening.d

He notes that the three day theme comes up repeatedly in the Bible.

Second, Fr. Larry notes that Jerome's Vulgate Latin version of the Bible has verses that are not in the Greek version, about how her beauty was enhanced greatly by her virtue. This brings up an interesting question of whether Jerome was using a Hebrew/Aramaic original version of Judith that had these extra verses.

To explain better what I mean, sometimes there are noticeable differences between the Masoretic and LXX, even putting aside particularly Christological passages. One that comes to mind is Zechariah 12:11. The KJV, using the Vulgate and the Masoretic, has: " In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon." Instead, the LXX for that verse talks about the pomegranate tree being cut down in the plain. ( Rimmon in Hebrew means pomegranate. )

St Jerome was working with a Hebrew version of the Old Testament and translating it into Latin. One explanation about the difference in Judith between the Vulgate and the LXX could be that Jerome was working with a Hebrew text version of Judith. In Qumran among the Dead Sea Scrolls, some Hebrew and Aramaic scrolls like Tobit (but not Judith) were found for Deuterocanonical books, so apparently the original versions of some of them were made in Semitic.

Third, in the last part (around 55 min. into the video lecture), Fr. Larry refers to the ending section of Judith that talks about people rejoicing with musical instruments. Judith 15-16 has Judith's celebration and her song of deliverance:
and she and the other women crowned themselves with olive leaves. Then, at the head of all the people, she led the women in the dance, while the men of Israel followed, bearing their weapons, wearing garlands and singing songs of praise.
Judith led all Israel in this song of thanksgiving, and the people loudly sang this hymn of praise:

And Judith sang:
“Strike up a song to my God with tambourines,
sing to the Lord with cymbals;
Improvise for him a new song,
exalt and acclaim his name...."
He concludes from this that Charismatic Catholic modes of music can be acceptable when they play on some instruments, but that he doesn't agree with extreme cases of Charismatic services.
He says:
So anybody that says "Oh, there is no place for tambourines, or drums or anything other than an organ in a church and we can't use anything other than an organ in a church, and we can only sing Gregorian chant,"
I get that, I understand that, it is part of our liturgical patrimony, I love all that stuff. But they just disparage stringed instruments and say "This has no part in our liturgy and this is degrading the mass and blah blah blah."
I'm like 'Read the Old Testament, man, they were banging on lyres and harps and stuff and clashing cymbals and banging on tamborines and things and dancing around and their arms up in the air. Sounds like charismatic style worship to me.
One difference between the celebration in Judith and liturgical Charismatic worship is that the dancing musical celebration in Judith was part of celebrating a national victory, rather than a ritual liturgical service, like in a Temple or synagogue. If we were to relate this to the Christian era, this would be like a victory parade with dancers and music in Emperor Constantine's time, rather than performing a Latin mass in 4th century Rome with dancing.

To make the case for Charismatic style worship, you would really want to look for examples of instruments and dancing, etc. being used as part of a formal OT synagogue or Temple service. Paul in his correspondence to the Corinthians talks about them speaking in tongues at their gatherings, but it's not clear that they were doing this as part of a formal service, as opposed to at non-liturgical gatherings.
 

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Here are readings of the Book of Judith:
  • The Book of Judith (KJV) read by Christopher Glyn
  • The Book Of Judith - King James Version (KJV), uploaded by Classic Catholic Audiobooks
  • The Book of Judith (Apocrypha), KJV, uplaoded by Sons of Jacob Ministries
  • The Book Of Judith - Douay–Rheims Bible, recorded by Sam Stinson
  • The Book of Judith 📚 The Bible 🕎, narrated by Sean McKinley
  • The Book of Judith, RSVCE (Audio with Caption)
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTjqmmAnkos&ab_channel=CatholicFaith
 

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These are documentaries and talks on Italian artist Artemisia Gentileschi, who painted scenes of Judith and Holofernes:
  • Artemisia Undaunted
  • Judith Slaying Holofernes, Artemisia Gentileschi: Great Art Explained
    youtube.com/watch?v=LejFaCncuc4&ab_channel=GreatArtExplained
  • Judith and Holofernes: Two Baroque Masterpieces (This talk also discusses Caravaggio's artwork on the subject)
  • ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI'S JUDITH BEHEADING HOLOFERNES: Painterly Revenge?
  • "Judith Slaying Holofernes", uploaded by The Canvas compares Artemisia's and Caravaggio's paintings on the subject.
"Cranach the Elder, Judith with the Head of Holofernes". This is a talk about a c.1530 painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder on the same theme:

"Story behind… Judith & Holofernes" by Slava S. links to several videos and lectures on Gustav Klimt's paint of Judith and Holofernes' head, including a 3D rendition version of his painting:
 

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Here are Bible Studies on Judith that I heard:
 

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I also saw lectures connecting Judith's story to the Hanukkah story. For instance, Judith is the female form of the name Judah, Judah Maccabee being one of the leaders of the Jewish revolt.
  • The Story of Judith: A Hanukkah Heroine
  • Hanukkah and Judith
  • Judith and the Hanukkah Story
  • Judith: The Forgotten Hanukkah Heroine
  • Judith: Hanukkah Heroine | History, by the History Channel
 

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"The Book of Judith" is a 2009 Canadian drama play that partly uses the Biblical story of Judith:
"The Book of Judith" is also a US-Mexican movie by Alex Giner:
"Judith"/"Judita" is a Croatian musical play by Ensemble Dialogos and Katarina Livljanic:
  • Here are excerpts from the 2010 DVD recording of the play:
  • Apparently, this is a song from the play with musical accompaniment:
"Judith of Bethulia" is a 1913-1914 silent movie:
  • Here is the movie in full, for 1 hour 12 minutes:
  • Here is the movie with musical accompaniment, for almost 47 minutes:
 

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In his prologue to Judith, Jerome wrote that he made his Latin translation from Aramaic and that the Council of Nicea counted it as Scripture:
Moreover, since it was written in the Chaldean [Old Aramaic] language, it is counted among the historical books. But since the Nicene Council is considered to have counted this book among the number of sacred Scriptures, I have acquiesced to your request (or should I say demand!): and, my other work set aside, from which I was forcibly restrained, I have given a single night's work , translating according to sense rather than verbatim. I have hacked away at the excessively error-ridden panoply of the many codices; I conveyed in Latin only what I could find expressed coherently in the Chaldean words.
One explanation could be that Nicea referred to it as if it were Scripture in passing. However, there is no known establishment of a Bible canon at Nicea. The bishops did refer to Judith during the discussions at Nicea.
 

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Here are audio recordings of the Book of Judith in Russian and Slavonic:
  • Judith read by Ilya Prudovsky
  • Judith read by Ignatiy Lapkin
  • Judith read by Valery Shushkevich
  • Judith read in Church Slavonic by Aleksandr-HQ. The audio is slowed down by default, but you can speed it up for a normal listening pace.
Here are commentaries and summaries about the Book of Judith in Russian:
 

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Here are songs based on the Book of Judith:
  • Alexandr Kotler's "Judith": It uses a mix of Hebrew and Russian:
  • "Judith: From the Barocco to the Classic". This page links to recordings of performances of operas by Vivaldi, Jean Noel-Hamal, Mozart, and Domenico Cimarosa:
  • "Biblical Sujet: Judith (Antonio Vivaldi)". It's a short documentary on Vivaldi's opera about Judith.
  • "Biblical Sujet: Judith (Alexandr Serov): It's a documentary about Serov's composition about Judith.

These are clips about Gustav Klimt's paintings of Judith:
  • "Biblical Sujet: Judith (Gustav Klimt)" by Telekanal "Kultura"
  • "Judith and Holofernes. Gustav Klimt" by Imagine Review
  • Alexandr Tairov's talk on Klimt's painting:
  • "Judith in European Art". A talk by Nina Braginskaya and Vera Kalmykova on European paintings on the subject of Judith
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CeJYj8fvdkM&ab_channel=ESHKOLOTnew

These are clips about Director Oleg Zhyugzhda's comedy play, "Judith":

"Angels of Judith" is a play put on by the "Mikro" Theatre in Jerusalem"
  • The Premier of "Angels of Judith"
  • "He Sent Her": This page refers to the version of the story of "Judith" according to which her brother Judah Maccabee sent Judith to Holofernes' camp to seduce Holofernes

"Judith: A Choreographical Drama in One Act"
 

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The Prayer of Manasseh is a Deuterocanonical text that is placed in the Greek Septuagint at the end of 2 Chronicles. It is King Manasseh of Judah's prayer of repentance when he was taken into Assyrian captivity.

Here are recordings of the Prayer of Manasseh:
  • Prayer of Manasseh, Librivox Recording by Gabriel Shamp
  • The Prayer of Manasseh, NRSV
  • Prayer of Manasseh, read by Christopher Glen, KJV
  • Prayer of Manasseh, KJV, Audio Bible Recordings
  • Prayer of Manasseh, NRSV, hosted by Coptic Cross
This is a song based on the Prayer of Manasseh, by Upper Room Media
Here are commentaries and information on the Prayer of Manasseh:
Here is a performance of the Canon of St Andrew of Crete by St Nicholas Albanian Orthodox Church. This Canon of St Andrew includes the Prayer of Manasseh. This Prayer is used during Great Vespers around the time of Paskha:
 

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Prayer of Manasseh in Russian:
  • "Prayer of Repentance of King Manasseh of Judah" on Maxim Kaskun's channel
  • Prayer of Mansseh, read by Oleg Dankir, with background singing by Valaam monastery.
  • Metropolitan Nifon reading the Prayer of Manasseh

These are dramatic recordings based on the Prayer of Manasseh:

Here are commentaries about the Prayer of Manasseh
The Canon of St Andrew and Great Compline during Lent use the Prayer of Manasseh
 

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Here are readings of the Epistle of Jeremiah:
  • The Letter of Jeremiah, NRSV
  • The Letter of Jeremiah, NRSV
  • The Letter of Jeremiah, NRSV
  • Letter of Jeremiah, posted by Adam House
  • The Epistle of Jeremiah. The voice sounds like Christopher Glyn's, who does KJV readings. The text also matches the KJV.
  • Epistle of Jeremy, KJV
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tuWj1_4k5Hk&ab_channel=ReignYisrael
Here are commentaries and stories related to the Letter of Jeremiah:
  • The Legends' of the Jews' section on the Babylonian Captivity
  • Who Wrote the Bible: Episode 4, on the Apocrypha. It gives a brief overview of the Deuterocanonical books, including the Epistle of Jeremiah.
  • Letter of Jeremiah: audio reading of the Wikipedia entry
  • St Sava Orthodox Church's OT Study on the 4 books of Jeremiah: Epistle of Jeremiah, the OT Book of Jeremiah, Lamentations of Jeremiah, and Baruch.
 

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Here are readings of the Epistle of Jeremiah in Russian:
  • Epistle of Jeremiah read by Ilya Prudovsky
  • Epistle of Jeremiah - it has light background music
  • Epistle of Jeremiah, read by Oleg Dankir. It is slow because it has a bit of pausing between many sentences, and it also has violin music.

Here are commentaries about the Epistle of Jeremy:
 

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It's curious that 3 Maccabees, I heard, narrates events before 1-2 Maccabees. Further, although the Ethiopian broad canon books of 1-2 Maqabean resembles 1-2 Maccabees, The Ethiopian book of 3 Maqabean does not resemble 3 Maccabees.
 

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Here I want to explore the remaining independent manuscript sources for Deuterocanonical writings:

Psalm 151:

This is in:
1) the DSS,
2) the LXX, and in some Peshitta Manuscripts, which apparently used the LXX.
Wikipedia notes:
For many years scholars believed that Psalm 151 might have been an original Greek composition and that “there is no evidence that Psalm 151 ever existed in Hebrew”...
However, Psalm 151 appears along with several canonical and non-canonical psalms in the Dead Sea scroll 11QPs(a) (named also 11Q5), a first-century AD scroll discovered in 1956... This scroll contains two short Hebrew psalms which scholars now agree served as the basis for Psalm 151.[6]
One of these Hebrew psalms, known as “Psalm 151a”, is reflected in verses 1–5 of the Greek Psalm 151, while verses 6 onward are derived from the other Hebrew psalm, known as “Psalm 151b” (which is only partially preserved).
Here are translations of the DSS version set next to the Greek LXX version of Psalm 151:

John Strugnell, in his 1966 article on Psalm 151 ("Notes on the Text and Transmission of the Apocryphal Psalms 151, 154 (= Syr. II) and 155 (= Syr. III)", page 280), theorizes that the Syriac Peshitta must have just relied on the LXX. However, he found an old Arabic copy of Psalm 151 that so closely resembles the DSS's Psalm 151A that Strugnell concludes that the Arabic writer must have been relying on the version of Psalm 151A found at Qumran. Strugnell notes that in the 8th century AD, Hebrew Psalm manuscripts were discovered near Jericho.
Here is what Strugnell quotes from the Arabic version:
O David, if the mountains did not praise Me then would I truly tear them up;
If the trees did not praise Me then would I truly make their fruit little.
But there is nothing which does not praise Me greatly and sanctify Me mightily.
Do so then, ye peoples, for I see all.
H.F. Van Rooey, in "A second version of the Syriac Psalm 151", surveys scholarship on the Peshitta copies of Psalm 151 and concludes that Strugnell is correct that the Peshitta versions are reliant on the LXX for Psalm 151:

Here are copies of the noncanonical Psalms 152-160, taken from the Peshitta and DSS:

Wisdom of Solomon:
- This was written originally in a Greek version, which we still have.
A scholarly New English Translation, by Oxford Press:

Tobit
1) LXX - Sinaiticus version that roughly correlates to the Vetus Latina version. Scholars think that the VL version came from a Greek, not Hebrew version. There are medieval Aramaic and Hebrew versions that are considered to have come from a Greek version and resemble the Sinaiticus version.
2) LXX- Vaticanus and Alexandrinus version
3) An intermediary Greek form that is intermediary between #1 and 2, found in MSS 44, and 106-107
4) Jerome reported that he translated Tobit directly from an Aramaic version. The Douay-Rheims version of the Bible is especially close to his Vulgate.
5) DSS version.

A Preview version of Sinaiticus in English is here: https://books.google.com/books?id=NCYgEAAAQBAJ
A Preview version of Tobit in the DSS is here: https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Dead_Sea_Scrolls_Translated
DSS Complete English translation has Tobit:
--- https://archive.org/details/pdfy-Uy_BZ_QGsaLiJ4Zs/page/n5/mode/2up?q=4Q381
--- http://www.beit-nitzachon.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Complete-dead-sea-scrolls.pdf

NETS LXX translation:
Wikipedia notes:
Tobit exists in two Greek versions, one (Sinaiticus) longer than the other (Vaticanus and Alexandrinus).[16] Aramaic and Hebrew fragments of Tobit (four Aramaic, one Hebrew – it is not clear which was the original language) found among the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran tend to align more closely with the longer or Sinaiticus version, which has formed the basis of most English translations in recent times.
A critical translation:

Prayer of Manasseh
1) LXX version. There is a medieval Hebrew version that scholars mostly consider to come from the Greek or Syriac
2) There is a Prayer of Manasseh in the DSS, Manuscript 4Q381, Fr 33. But it's much different from the LXX version.
3) Syriac version in the Didascalia translated into the Vulgate.

Society for the Study of the OT comments that
However our earliest exemplar is a Syriac version, contained in the Didascalia. It was then translated into Latin and appended to various editions of the Vulgate.
It can be found in Chp. 7 of the Didascalia, p. 38: https://archive.org/details/didascaliaaposto00gibsuoft/page/n19/mode/2up?q=manasseh
New English Translation of the LXX (NETS): http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/24-ps-nets.pdf
DSS version here: http://michaelcardensjottings.blogspot.com/2009/02/prayer-of-manasseh.html
DSS version on p. 374: https://archive.org/details/pdfy-Uy_BZ_QGsaLiJ4Zs/page/n373/mode/2up?q=4Q381
Article about the medieval Hebrew version: "Linguistic Observations on the Hebrew Prayer of Manasseh from the Cairo Genizah",

The Early Jewish Writings site notes:
It was most likely composed in Greek and reflects the language and style of the Septuagint. It is included in some Septuagint manuscripts in a special section called 'Odes.' The most important versions are in Latin and Syriac, and it is included in church manuals from the third and fourth centuries C.E. (Apostolic Constitutions and Didaskalia).
The Prayer of Manasseh was originally composed in Greek by a Jew in the 1st or 2nd cent. AD. It was promptly translated from Greek into Syriac, and thus our earliest extant form of the Prayer is in a 3rd-cent. Christian Syr work, the Didascalia.
 

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Letter of Jeremiah
- DSS copy
- LXX
Wikipedia notes: " The earliest manuscripts containing the Epistle of Jeremiah are all in Greek. The earliest Greek fragment (1st century BC) was discovered in Qumran."

Baruch (Chpt 1-5)
-LXX only

New English Translation of the LXX, Oxford Press

Wikipedia notes:
The Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, Arabic, Bohairic and Ethiopic versions of Baruch are all translated directly from the Greek;[5] the text of which survives in Vaticanus and Alexandrinus, and is highly consistent.[17] Jerome (5th century) states that no Hebrew text was in existence,[18] and Origen (3rd century) appears to know of no Hebrew text in the preparation of the text of Baruch in the Hexapla Old Testament. Nevertheless, there are a number of readings in the earlier sections of Baruch (1:1 to 3:8) where an anomalous reading in the Greek appears to imply a mistranslation of a Hebrew or Aramaic source...

Whereas in the Revised Standard Version (1957) of Bible, the English text of Baruch consistently follows the Greek in these readings; in the New Revised Standard Version (1989) these readings are adjusted to conform with a conjectural reconstruction of a supposed Hebrew original.

Nevertheless, some more recent studies of Baruch, such as those by Adams and Bogaert, take the Greek text to be the original.
It doesn't sound like the NRSV is very good for this then.

Daniel
1) Hebrew version passed down in the form of the Masoretic
2) DSS copies
3) Old Greek version with the 3 famous Additions to Daniel
4) Theodotion's version, which uses a Hebrew version plus the 3-part Additions to Daniel.

DSS version of Daniel - all chapters (click between them): http://dssenglishbible.com/daniel 1.htm
List of non-Biblical Daniel texts in the DSS: https://www.bibleandscience.com/archaeology/dss.htm

The NETS Translation has both the "Old Greek" version and the later translation by Theodotion that the Greek Church adopted next to each other:

Judith
1) LXX
2) Jerome notes that he translated the Book of Judith directly from an Aramaic/"Chaldee" version.
3) There is a medieval Hebrew midrash, but it's considered to be based on the LXX, directly or indirectly.

Wikipedia notes:
It is not clear whether the Book of Judith was originally written in Hebrew or in Greek. The oldest existing version is in the Septuagint, and might either be a translation from Hebrew or composed in Greek. Details of vocabulary and phrasing point to a Greek text written in a language modeled on the Greek developed through translating the other books in the Septuagint.[3]

The extant Hebrew language versions, whether identical to the Greek, or in the shorter Hebrew version, date to the Middle Ages. The Hebrew versions name important figures directly such as the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, thus placing the events in the Hellenistic period when the Maccabees battled the Seleucid monarchs. The Greek version uses deliberately cryptic and anachronistic references such as "Nebuchadnezzar", a "King of Assyria", who "reigns in Nineveh", for the same king. The adoption of that name, though unhistorical, has been sometimes explained either as a copyist's addition, or an arbitrary name assigned to the ruler of Babylon.
Jan Joosten argues that it was originally composed in Greek: (https://www.academia.edu/7343694/_The_Original_Language_and_Historical_Milieu_of_the_Book_of_Judith_)

Dating the Book of Judith's narrative looks a little tough. The Book of Judith alludes to the Jews' return from the Babylonian Exile to set the story:
Chapter 4, v. 3
Now, they had only recently returned from exile, and all the people of Judea were just now reunited, and the vessels, the altar, and the temple had been purified from profanation.
...

Chapter 5, vv 18-19
18. But when they abandoned the way he had prescribed for them, they were utterly destroyed by frequent wars, and finally taken as captives into foreign lands. The temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were occupied by their enemies.

19. But now they have returned to their God, and they have come back from the Diaspora where they were scattered. They have reclaimed Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled again in the hill country, because it was unoccupied.
The dedication of the Second Temple after the Babylonian Exile was in 515 BC, whereas Judith 4-5 sets the events in the period soon after the exile.
Wikipedia says that the Persian king in Esther's story was Xerxes I, who ruled from 486 to 465 BC, and that Ezra was active in 480–440 BC. 2 Maccabees narrates the "purification" of the Temple after Antiochus' profanation of it in the 2nd century BC, so some think that the Book of Judith refers to the Maccabean purification of the Temple.
 

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These are Introductions to the Book of Baruch:
  • Fr. Larry Young's Introduction
  • A brief introduction in Spanish. You can turn on auto translated captions:

Here are readings of the Book of Baruch:

Here are commentaries on the Book of Baruch
  • Dr. Brant Pitre talks about the Catholic Old Testament reading for the Second Sunday of Advent
  • "The Prophet Baruch and the Exile." This is in Spanish, but has a subtitle translation in English
  • This talk mentions a scroll artifact marked with a stamp for the scribe Baruch the son of Neriah
  • Fr. Mike Schmitz's talks for Days 206-208 cover Baruch
  • Fr. Peter B.'s talk on Baruch
  • Fr. Michael Deas' talk on Baruch
  • Prof. Christine Hayes' talk. She is a Professor of Religious Studies in Classical Judaica, and the clip shows sequences from a movie apparently showing actors playing Jeremiah and Baruch.
  • Fr. Jason Weber, "Baruch, Prophet for a Time of Crisis." The talk is in Spanish, but the idea is pretty simple and the speech is pretty simple and slow, so that with some basic knowledge of Spanish, you can get the general idea.
  • Fr. Charles Pershing reads from Baruch and talks about it.
  • The University of Nottingham has talks on the Book of Baruch:
  • Audio recording of the Wikipedia entry on the prophet Baruch
  • Audio recording of the Wikipedia entry on the Book of Baruch
  • Bishop John Sherrington, Catholic Diocese of Westminster
  • Fr. Trevor Tibberstma
  • Commentary on the Book of Baruch in the Coptic series "Uncovering the Deuterocanonical Books"
These are musical performances with the theme of Baruch:
  • Communio Ierusalem Surge - The song is about the restoration of Jerusalem, and the clip has a talk about Baruch
  • "Baruch the Scribe" is a Texas-based Techno band and you can hear recordings from one of their albums here:
Here are recordings of liturgies that use readings from the Book of Baruch:
  • The Second Sunday of Advent in the Catholic Church reads from the Book of Baruch because it talks about God's Wisdom becoming incarnate. This recording is from a mass for the Second Sunday of Advent at the US National Catholic Shrine of the Immaculate Conception:
  • "The Eve of the Nativity of Our Lord, God, and Savior, Jesus Christ - Great Vespers" At this Vespers, there are readings from 8 OT books, including Baruch. The recording is from Holy Dormition Orthodox Church, Rhode Island
 

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Here are videos in Russian or Ukrainian on The Book of 1 Baruch:

Audio readings of the Book:
  • Valery Shushkevich's reading:
  • The Lucky Dreamer's reading:
  • Elena Drachilovskaya reads it:
  • Oleg Dankir's reading:
  • Ilya Prudovsky's reading:

Here are summaries of the saint:
  • 11 October, Baruch as the saint of the day
  • "Life of the Saints. The Prophet Baruch."
    .

Commentaries on Baruch:

Here are liturgical uses of Baruch:
 

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This was the prevailing view in the Greek Church in the first millennium. Here's a rough chart of the major Fathers/documents who outlined a canon:

View attachment 20641
I think that this might have been made by a Protestant, based on where I've seen some of these graphs before. I think Melito accepted Wisdom, and the graph doesn't show the Muratorian Canon, which accepts Wisdom, or Justin Martyr, which asserts that the Jews of his time accepted Tobias. Justin goes beyond that though and complains that the Jews have removed books from their collection of scripture, referring likely to the fact that the Tanakh lacks the Deuterocanon.
 

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In Matthew 11, Jesus says, "For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John." Here, Jesus speaks as if there is a long line of prophecy of Christ running from Moses until John the Baptist, including what some call the "Intertestamental" period that would include the Deuterocanon.

This also implies a serious distinction between Jesus' belief about OT inspired prophecy and the Protestant/rabbinical idea. There is a common rabbinical idea that Prophecy stopped in Israel with the end of the Tanakh period. According to the Orthodox Encyclopedia, 16th century Protestantism (and perhaps the rabbis) had an idea somewhere along the lines that Ezra called a "Great Assembly" and ended the books of the OT there. Jesus is in affect giving another idea, suggesting that prophecy continued through to John the Baptist, whom Jesus also called the greatest of the OT prophets. I have also seen a close examination of rabbinical writings showing that prophecy did not actually literally stop in the end of the Tanakh's narrative. One evidence of this is the "Bat Kol" or Voice of God that was heard in the "Intertestamental" period according to rabbinical tradition.
 

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One place that especially sticks out in the Wisdom of Solomon that made me question whether it was a Christian composition was Chp. 14 is v. 7

The Greek with a word for word translation is:
εὐλόγηται γὰρ ξύλον, δι' οὗ γίνεται δικαιοσύνη·

Blessed for wood/tree in that where is produced righteouness.

The Orthodox Study Bible has:
6. For even in the beginning, when arrogant giants perished, the hope of the world took refuge in a boat, and piloted by Your hand it left to the world the seed of a family.
7. For the wood was blessed through which righteousness comes.
8. But what was made by human hands itself is accursed, And so is he who made it -
He because he made it, And the perishable thing because it was called a god.
ξύλον (ksulon): "anything made of wood, a piece of wood, a club, staff; the trunk of a tree, used to support the cross-bar of a cross in crucifixion." (Strong's Concordance)

In the Gospels' story of the passion, soldiers come with clubs/staffs (ksilon) to arrest Jesus. In Luke 23, Jesus compares recognizing apocalyptic events to seeing that the tree (ksilon) is green. 4 times Acts refers to Jesus being killed on a tree/cross (ksilon).

The verse jumps out at me as a bit cryptic, as if it is alluding to some general principle about a certain tree/wood that brings righteousness. But this sounds arcane enough that it seems that it could be alluding to the Cross.


The overall context is that the chapter describes people being saved by ships at sea made of wood getting people through danger, and then a complaint about how the sailors pray to wood idols. It talks about the process of making idols from wood, and describes it in a detailed, technical way, showing that the process is earthly, rather than supernatural. The author is contrasting Noah's saving wood (the ark) with wooden idols that are made into a degraded form (idols) by their fashioners.

Rev. Goodrick writes in The Book of Wisdom : with Introduction and Notes:
Nor need the hypothesis that the book was written by a Christian detain us long.' (Footnote B) 'There is no trace in the book,' says Furrar rightly (414a), "of any knowledge of Christ nor of His atonement nor of His resurrection," and it is quite true that of nine texs adduced to support such a view (4146, n. 1), not a single one shows distinct marks of Christian origin. They are 3:6, 4:2-10, 5:17, 7:20, 9:8-16 Sqq., 11 10-24, and it is not worth while to quote them at length. There remain, however, two passages of more Importance— 2:17-18, and 14:7. In the first ('let us see if his word be true ... for if the righteous man is God's son He will uphold him and He will deliver him out of the hand of his adversaries ') we have certainly a very strong resemblance to S. Matt. 27:42-43 but that does not prove anything.

As to the other text (14:7), 'Blessed is the wood whereby righteousness cometh,' it certainly seems meaningless where it stands. It is capable of explanation, as we shall see, without referring it to the cross of Christ; but if any passage could encourage the theory that the book has been dealt with by a Christian interpolator. It would be this.
...
Blunt explains well, 'Blessed is the ark whereby a righteous seed was preserved in the person of Noah, the 'Preacher of righteousness,' 2 Pet. 2:5"

The passage is curiously worded. Some would even refer it to Aaron's rod; but the use of Ksilon, which became a common word for the cross of Christ, induced the Fathers (a long list is given by A Lapide) to see here a prophecy of the crucifixion. For ksilon in this sense cf. 1 Pet. 2:24, Gal. 3:13, Acts 5:30,10:30, 13:29. Grimm cites Acts 16:21, where Ksilon means 'the stocks.' In modern times GRatz Geschichte, iii. 630, claimed that this was a Christian interpolation: if so, it must have included an alteration of v. 8, for eulogitai [blessed] corresponds most accurately to epikataraton [accursed]. Pseudo-Solomon probably only used Ksilon in order to point a contrast with heiropoiton [something handmade] (ksilon) in the next verse. He wanted a neuter word. Farrar notes that the Fathers had before them the interpolated eBasileusen (apo tou Ksilon) found in the Vernose Psalterium (Swete, R.), but prima manu only.
Footnotes:
B) It was, however, strongly maintained by distinguished scholars down to the middle of the last century.
David A. deSilva writes:
"The terminus ad quem is set by the evident use of the work by several New Testament authors (Holmes 1913: 521; Reider 1957: 14). A date within the early period of Roman domination of Egypt, especially the early Roman Principate (or Empire), seems most likely. First, the description of the development of the ruler cult in 14:16-20 best describes not the cult of the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt, a cult that was organised and promoted from the center, but the spontaneous, decentralized development of the imperial cult under Augustus, who was also Egypt's first 'remote' ruler since Alexander (Holmes 1913: 521; Oesterley 1935: 207; Winston 1979: 21-22; Collins 2000: 195). Second, the author uses some thirty-five terms or phrases unattested in secular Greek before the first century C.E. (Winston 1979: 22-23 and n. 33). Further, Gilbert (1984: 312; 1973: 172) has detected a critique of the pax romana in 14:22, 'through living in great strife due to ignorance, they call such great evils peace' (cf. Tacitus Agricola 30), and considers the author's address in 6:1-2 to the 'judges of the ends of the earth' who 'rule over multitudes, and boast of many nations' to fit the Roman imperial period better than its predecessors." (Introducing the Apocrypha, pp. 132-133)
One explanation for the term "peace" when Wisdom of Solomon complains that the idolators perform sinful acts and call them or the situation "peace", could be that it refers to Jerusalem or Salem in the OT, since "Salem" (Shalom in Hebrew) means peace. Wisdom is complaining especially about the practices of the idolatrous Canaanites and mentions child sacrifice in its complaints. The Romans weren't sacrificing children still anymore in the 1st century.

The Jewish Encyclopedia says,
The apostle Paul... the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Heb. i. 3, iv. 12; comp. Wisdom vii. 22, 26), and others have drawn from the Book of Wisdom. This places the date of the book, or at least that of the first part, with certainty in the first century B.C.
Wisdom: Volume 20 by Richard J Clifford notes:
Though 14:7, "blest is the wood through which justice comes about," actually refers to the ark of Noah, some patristic authors took it as a reference to the wood of the cross by which the world was saved. The Greek word used here, xulon, is used for the cross in New Testament passages such as Acts 5:30 and Galatians 3:13.
Melito (c. 165 AD) considers it canonical, and Melito otherwise seems to restrict the OT canon to the rabbis' Tanakh, so his opinion seems to suggest that its Jewish author wrote in the pre-Christian period or at least without accepting Christianity. For him to mistakenly think it was an OT-era scripture, it would likely have been written in the 1st century AD or earlier, since he would have been born around the early 2nd century.

The Muratorian Canon puts it near the list of its canon, which suggests to me that the author of the Muratorian Canon may have considered it to have been written by Christians or in the NT era. However, by including it in its canon, the Muratorian fragment's author implied that he considered it to be from the OT era. Further, the Muratorian fragment doesn't have an OT section otherwise, so its OT canon is lost from the fragment or else the Muratorian canon never included a comprehensive OT canon list.
 

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Chapter 16 of the Wisdom of Solomon discusses God's treatment of the Israelites and their adversaries during the Exodus period before the Israelites entered the Promised Land.
I remember one of the Orthodox audio commentaries that I've posted saying that this is a later story outside of the Bible regarding the Exodus events. Fr. Alexander Satomsky on the other hand comments that the Wisdom of Solomon's remarks here, particularly about the fire during the Exodus, are "idealizing the Torah events."
The Orthodox Study Bible notes that this event is in Exodus 9:22-26. This passage says in part (KJV translation):
23. And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt.
24. So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
 

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Daniel
1) Hebrew version passed down in the form of the Masoretic
2) DSS copies
3) Old Greek version with the 3 famous Additions to Daniel
4) Theodotion's version, which uses a Hebrew version plus the 3-part Additions to Daniel.
Taylor in "The Book of Daniel in Edessa" argues that the 2nd century AD Peshitta translation of Daniel is very helpful and is an independent translation of Daniel, independent of the LXX and Masoretic.
 
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